In terms of an operational process of rail-tracked rolling stock, the most important assemblies, liable to sudden failures, are limiting the rolling stock in general. Such assemblies include ones of electric and mechanical equipment which failures cannot be eliminated during operation.
The most efficient methods of detecting failures of rotary mechanical equipment is heating and vibration-acoustics, however, heating method allows barely state the fact of beginning of an assembly’s destruction, or find defects on a late stage of their development, as long as the vibration-acoustic method of NDT allows to detect both nucleating and developed defects.
Big amount of interferences and high noise level accompanying interaction of a wheel and a rail track has formed a common opinion on provision objective vibration acoustic condition diagnostics of rolling stock’s rotary machinery condition in operation being hard or, sometimes, impossible to achieve.
The research is aimed at providing the most informative, in terms of vibration-acoustic diagnostics, frequency range of a vibration signal, in order to develop an expert system and provide condition monitoring of a rail-tracked rolling stock.
Kostyukov Al.V., Tsurpal A.E., Basakin V.V. Research on vibration activity of assemblies in rail-tracked rolling stock’s mechanical parts // XX Russian scientific conference on NDT and technical diagnostics: proceedings – Moscow: Spectr Editorial, 2014. – p.353-355.
Today, the most common method to estimate centrifugal pump unit condition is vibration analysis which analyze vibration signals on the unit’s surface. In that case spectral analysis of signals is used, in which harmonic components of the spectrum are placed in correspondence with particular defects. However, usage of spectrum analysis requires precise information on the type and construction of the unit, its operation practice which might be imprecise or even absent. That might lead to condition estimation errors. Thus, a task of investigating new diagnostic methods using algorithms invariant to type and construction of the unit is urgent.
The paper considers using in diagnostics of centrifugal pump unit one of non-linear dynamic methods - fractal dimension, in which Hurst exponent of fractal dimension is used as a diagnostic feature. The main advantage of the feature is invariance to the level of analyzed signal, and, consequently, independency of power and dimension characteristics of the unit.
The paper reveals the results of researches on using the Hurst exponent of fractal dimension for determining unit’s cavitation carries out by means of the COMPACS®-RPG bench system for pump units testing. It is shown that the exponent’s response is accurate, and, in some cases, even more accurate than the main cavitation spectral feature – level of blade harmonics.
Thus, usage of the Hurst exponent of fractal dimension allows to improve reliability of output from an expert system for pump units condition diagnostic.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Pavlenkov D.V. Usage of fractal dimension coefficient for vibration analysis of centrifugal pump units’ condition // XX Russian scientific conference on NDT and technical diagnostics: proceedings – Moscow: Spectr Editorial, 2014. – p.352-353.
Non-destructive testing and technical diagnostics of columns, reactors and tanks of refinery and petrochemical productions during operation on production conditions is an urgent task, which solution provides reliability and safety of explosive and flammable productions.
The computer monitoring and automatic diagnostics systems COMPACS® apply almost all methods of non-destructive testing: vibration, acoustic emission, heat, electric, eddy-current, acoustic, optical.
The principles of the system’s structure allow to provide flexibility and multipurposeness of the applied NDT methods. In that case the data are collected by various-type sensors, and an automatic expert system analyzes the facility’s condition.
Today, DYNAMICS SPC in collaboration with «FORC — Photonics» has solved the task on control provision by applying a fiber-optic technology for non-destructive testing purposes and technical diagnostics of columns and tanks at refinery and petrochemical production facilities in operation.
The paper considers application of fiber-optic technology in the COMPACS® systems in order to provide NDT and technical diagnostics of columns and tanks at refinery and petrochemical production facilities in operation.
Boychenko S.N., Tarasov E.V., Zarenbin A.V., Simonov M.A. Fiber-optic systems for temperature and strains monitoring // XX Russian scientific conference on NDT and technical diagnostics: proceedings – Moscow: Spectr Editorial, 2014. – p.247-248.
The prime means of machinery operability support is preventive maintenance. The intervals between maintenance/repairs as well as their size and contents depend on the statistical data. That method does not consider special features of the particular assembly, its actual operation conditions, such as stochastic loads on the machines, or operation procedure, etc. A machinery maintenance system based on such approach has several disadvantages.
Switching from preventive maintenance to condition-based maintenance allows considerably (in a few times) increase run-to-failure period and decrease operational costs. The real-time condition monitoring of machines and their parts ensures an objective assessment of condition during operation. The second component of the innovative technology for maintenance, repair, run-to-failure growth and reduction of cost required for a demanded condition support is detection of faulty parts of the machine before repair and an accurate assessment of their condition after the repair.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Kostyukov Al.V., Boychenko S.N. Real-time condition monitoring – innovative technology of maintenance and repair production // Territoriya NDT (NDT Territory). - 2014. - №1. - p.66-69.
Vibration analysis provides a comprehensive assessment of a piston machine’s condition by outer vibration of its casing, and makes an effective instrument for investigating dynamic processes’ quality during assembling, production, defects detection and their critical growth during operation. The highest efficiency rate can be reached by ensuring the condition monitoring of not only a piston machine, but all conjugated mechanisms and attached assemblies.
Internal combustion motors are the most important types of piston machines for which vibration-acoustic diagnostics allows to provide safe accident-free operation with the longest possible operating life.
A DMS is a system (or machine) which product is current information on the condition of the machinery and possible danger, with required commentary (prognosis of residual operating life, prompting on the nearest urgent actions to be made, etc.) and a set risk level.
Kostyukov V.N. Reliability increase of piston machines equipped with condition diagnostic and monitoring system (DMS) // Machine manufacturing. Encyclopedia. - Moscow: Mashinostroenie. Dvigateli vnutrennego sgoraniya. - 2013. - Vol. IV-14. – Annex, par.4. - p.775-781
Internal combustion motors are multifactor source of powerful vibration-acoustic signals. The motor’s vibrations are caused by unevenly rotating masses – inertia of reciprocating masses, centrifugal inertia and its moments, gas dynamic processes – power of gas pressure, inlet/outlet gas flow, fuel injection, and, also, impact and friction between elements and details of assemblies and mechanisms.
The paper consideres continuous condition monitroing and real-time automatic diagnostics of pump units at refinery and petrochemical facilities.
Using recommendations issued by the COMPACS® condition monitroing system with an automatic expert system, the maintenance personnel can ensure safe resource-saving operation of machinery of hazadours production facilities at refineries and petrochemical companies, search and correct errors in technology process, control operation procedure of machinery according to its condition.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov An.V., Tarasov E.V. Advantages of real-time condition monitoring // Neftepererabotka i neftehimiya (Oil-refining and petrochemistry). - 2013. - №11. - p.44-51
Self-diagnostics of a system for diagnostics and monitoring (hereinafter - SDM) of hazardous production facilities ensures minimal cost of such system’s operation, metrological reliability and availability factor [1-7]. Modern SDM comprising software-hardware complexes having combination of self-diagnostic methods which decreases their reliability. The paper considers a hardware method of a SDM’s vibration measuring channel end-to-end self-diagnostics from the sensor’s sensing element to the display.
The suggested method is based on producing a test signal to the sensor circuit and its further analysis by software-hardware means [2, 5], was utilized, particularly, in development of SDM for petrochemical units.
The paper considers an approach to reliability increase of a condition monitroing system with a piezo-sensor by means of condition control for measuring-transducing channel using self-diagnostics. The paper considers selection of the most efficient parameters for self-diagnostic circuit. The results of the practical experience are presented.
Donskov, V., Ivanov, A., Zavgorodniy, V., Kostyukov, V., “Vibration transducers for industrial application”, Foreign radioelectronics, No. 9, pp 65-67, 1996.
Kostyukov, V., Morozov, S., Certificate of authorship No. 1740994 “Device for machines diagnostics”, International classification of inventions - G01M15/00, USSR, application of 01/09/1983, published on 15/06/1992, bulletin No. 22, 4 p.
Kostyukov, V., Bojchenko, S., Kostyukov, A.,“Automated control systems for safe resource-saving operation of equipment at refining and petrochemical plants (ACS SRSTM –COMPACS®)”, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, ISBN: 5-217-02971-4, 163 p, 1999.
Kostyukov, V., Certificate for useful model No. 1537 “The system for machines diagnostics on their body vibration”, International classification of inventions - G01M15/00, Russian Federation, application of 15/03/1994, published on 16/01/1996, bulletin No. 1, 2 p.
Computer Aided Maintenance, Rules for selection and use of systems, Maintenance Management, No. 4, pp 15-19, 1997.
Computer Aided Maintenance, Champion the maintenance cause internally, Lack of formal strategy and performance, Look after your assets, Maintenance Management, No. 5, pp 23-27, 1997.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V. Self-diagnostics of piezoelectric transducers // The 11th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2013)
Anthropogenic accidents and emergencies for 70-80 years have been accompanying technological development. To neutralize such threat the production industries require an effective risk management, creation and implementation of safety mindset, technology and equipment.
Sudden emergency shutdown of hazardous production facilities may not only cause considerable economic losses due to shutdown and operability restoration, but also a risk of ecological and anthropogenic accidents and emergencies. In order to avoid the emergencies, a reliable and timely diagnosis is required, so it could provide accident-free operation with maximum resource utilization of replaceable parts and assemblies.
Main production facilities, as a rule comprise machines (pumps, compressors, air-blowers, etc.) and static equipment (columns, tanks, pipelines, etc.). Today, for the condition diagnostics of such facilities the automatic diagnostics and monitoring system COMPACS® is commonly used.
The results of its implementation practice confirm the invariability and uniformity of application of the developed methods and systems for diagnostics of rolling and plane bearings, valves, gas-hydrodynamic and electro-magnetic units, gears, crank-type, crosshead and other mechanisms, centrifugal, gear-wheel pumps, electric motors, piston and centrifugal compressors, and other machines, air-coolers.
There is a common opinion that it is difficult, and sometimes even impossible to ensure objective diagnostics of rolling stock’s rotor machinery condition in operation, due to great amount of interferences, such as high level of noise accompanying weel-railtrack interaction.
However, even in order to reach the dynamic error rating 1% (for the most important machinery the acceptable error rate is 0.1 %) it is required to carry out diagnostics at least every two hours, which can be achieved by using on-board condition monitoring systems of rolling stock assemblies.
The paper is aimed at providing an assessment of vibration parameter rates in operating traction motors.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V., Tsurpal A.E., Basakin V.V., Zaytsev A.V. Analysis of vibrational activity of traction electric motors in electric trains for diagnostic purposes // Improving the efficiency of collector electromechanical energy converters operation: Proceeding of IX international scientific conference – Omsk, Omsk State Transport University, 2013 – p. 214-221.