The article presents the mechanism of unit vibration trends, which represent the mixture of gradual and discontinuous processes, and the mechanism of spreading of vibration spectrum in case of the unit degradation.
We proposed and tested the method of recursive synthesis of orthogonal diagnostic features that is invariant to the unit type. This method based on the blocks of spectral matrix realizes the concept of "collective recognition". In addition, we developed and tested deterministic models of unit performability and method of approximation of multimodal intensity of wear by Veibull-Gnedenko mixture of distributions.
The results obtained form the basis of the strategy for minimal cost diagnostics and enable significant reduction of costs and shortening of the period of implementation of the systems for condition monitoring of hazardous production facilities.
Kostyukov V.N. Synthesis of invariant diagnostic features and models of the unit condition for the purpose of diagnostics // Omsk Research Bulletin. - Omsk: 2000. - Issue 12. - p. 77-81
The main types of vibration signals used in the systems for equipment vibration analysis are the signals of vibration acceleration, vibration velocity, and vibration displacement. The parameters of these signals (RMS value, peak value) are in common use in different diagnostic and vibration-survey systems for equipment condition control.
In order to receive the required signal it is allowed to use appropriate sensor as an end device: piezoaccelerometer – for vibration acceleration parameter, inductive sensor of vibration velocity - for vibration velocity, displacement sensor – for vibration displacement.
But most devices and systems for vibration measurement use vibroaccelerometer as an end device, and the integration operations are used for acquisition of the signal of vibration velocity and vibration displacement.
Boychenko S.N. Algorithms for spectral integration of vibroacoustic signals for equipment vibration analysis // DYNAMICS OF MACHINE AGGREGATES: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference. - Gabcikovo (Slovak Republic), 2000. - p. 34-37
Vibroacoustic signal matrix reflecting the structure of diagnosed machine has been synthesized in the article. The matrix rows contain the spectrum components in different frequency bands, the matrix columns contain the components relating to certain classes of condition and types of defects of various kinematic couples, and residual 'noise' that reflect the principle of information completeness.
We considered spectral matrix conversions for the synthesis of diagnostic features, proposed the method and system for automatic recognition, which are invariant to machine construction, proposed an adaptive algorithm for recognition in conditions of a priori uncertainty, which enables recursive improvement of the machine construction by the parameters of its vibration.
The aspect, which is realized after considering the results of the synthesis of a spectral matrix of vibration signal, enters into invariance principle that is one of the bases of the strategy of minimum cost. The use of invariance principle in vibration analysis and diagnostic systems enables significant reduction of the implementation period.
Kostyukov V.N. Synthesis of a spectral matrix of machine vibration and its recognition for the purpose of diagnostics // Omsk Research Bulletin. - Omsk: 2000. - Issue 12. - p. 71-77
Russian refineries are used groups of ten thousand pumping units, basically centrifugal pumps, both Russian and foreign production. It’s power ranges from tens kilowatts to tens megawatts.
Technological settings of primary oil processing, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming and others contains a different number of units, which ranges from groups of ten to hundred units depending on powers of settings. Specialists never raised doubts the necessity an anti-accident protection a powerful compressor and other unique machines, but not a pumps, which high concentration in modern technological settings however offen was reason of damages and other production troubles.
Really, if we take probability of pump trouble-free operation in day equal 0.99, then for the group of machines, containing 100 units, refusal probability close to 1, and the technological system herewith practically disabled. For reaching stability of a technological system to different perturbations, including failures of motor pumps, it is necessary to provide overseeing with the exterior on it exterior and interior factors describing its availability index of product, and control by its state by means of opportune acceptance of engineering and organizational measures.
Kostjukov V. N., Boychenko S.N., Kostjukov A.V. Vibration monitoring of pumps in Russian refineries // Mimosa Meeting 17, Scottsdale, Arizona, April 12-16, 1999
The introduction of ecologically clean resourse-keeping technology is the main demand of modern production especially in dangerous branches of industry such as oil-gas-refining, oil-chemical etc.
It's impossible to imagine oil-chemical production without reliable accident-free work of technological equipment. By means of computer vibration monitoring COMPACS® system we provide fundamentally new level of safe processes and machine maintenance based on the latest information technologies, saving large financial and personnel resourses.
Kostjukov V. N. Safe Maintenance of The Equipment is The Technology of The XXI Century - Russian Experience // Mimosa Meeting 17, Scottsdale, Arizona, April 12-16, 1999
The paper presents the model of quasi-periodic vibroacoustic signal intended for diagnostics of batch-type objects.
In addition, we synthesized generic diagnostic features describing technical condition of batch-type objects, which are invariant to its construction. It enables to shorten the period of experimental and survey work as well as the time required for gathering of the signal statistics in different conditions of the objects during the implementation of diagnostic systems.
Kostyukov V.N. Generic diagnostic model of vibroacoustic signal of batch-type objects // Omsk Research Bulletin. - Omsk, 1999. - Issue 6. - p. 37-41
Ensuring accident-free operation of pump-and-compressor equipment (PCE) is inseparably linked with condition control.
The COMPACS® stationary and portable systems enable condition monitoring and diagnostics of a wide range of PCE (including reciprocating compressors) by vibroacoustic, temperature and other diagnostic parameters.
Сontinuous condition monitoring of the machinery forms the basis of the technology for safe operation of machine equipment that is intended to the elimination of sudden failures of the units, which cause accidents with important consequences. Condition monitoring is carried out by analyzing diagnostic features of the condition and automated detection of causes of the unit malfunctions with timely failure warning to the maintenance personnel in the form of voice and visual messages.
Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Naumenko A.P. Automation of the diagnostics of pump-and-compressor equipment // Consumers and manufacturers of compressors and compressor equipment: Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium. - St. Petersburg, 1998. - p. 225-232
Researches of the processes of degradation of technical condition of pump-and-compressor units, which were carried out at Omsk Refinery by means of the COMPACS® stationary systems for vibration monitoring, showed that velocities of performability loss widely differ at various unit assemblies.
Therefore, vibration analysis should be carried out in terms of development of the destruction processes; and as far as possible vibration analysis should be invariant to the equipment construction. The accidents of centrifugal pumping units can be prevented by reduction of time required for construction of trends of changes of vibration parameters and for detection of defects of certain elements by the trends concerned.
Vibration of the set of the unit elements, pump and motor rotors, supporting bearing assemblies, coupling, suction and pressure pipelines, and a base supporting the unit should be measured simultaneously during operation of the unit.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov A.V., Boychenko S.N. Diagnostics of pump-and-compressor units by monitoring of vibration parameter trends // Diagnostics of equipment and pipelines: Proceedings of XVII International Theme Workshop. - M: Gazprom, 1997. - p. 187-194
Machinery failures make up the major part of failures of units of oil-refining and petrochemical complexes. Machinery failures often cause accidents and manufacturing defects.
In order to mend matters it is necessary to ensure observability and evaluation of technical condition of the units during the manufacturing process, during acceptance at consuming plants, during repair at repair departments of refineries, during the mounting of assemblies at the unit, and during operation at process units.
Increase of petrochemical complex (PCC) reliability without replacement of equipment and reconstruction is realized by implementation of monitoring tools at all stages of life cycle of PCC units, i.e. by different systems for vibration analysis and vibration monitoring - stationary, personal and stand (on input diagnostics of the bearings, diagnostics and balancing of pump spindles, etc.), their integration into a single diagnostic network ACS SRSM™ (Automated Control Systems of Safe Resource-saving operation and Maintenance of equipment), which enables automatic preparation and circulation of diagnostic information between the systems and submission of the information at all levels from operator and mechanic to the shop heads.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V. Russian experience of automatic diagnostics and monitoring of pump-and-compressor equipment on the basis of the COMPACS systems // Safe operation of compressor and pumping equipment. - Odessa, 2001. - p. 154-170
Complexity of reciprocator vibration analysis consists in the cyclicity of operation of moving parts. Vibration signal is almost periodic process, and the wear rate of the unit influences vibration signal level under certain values of crankshaft rotation angle.
However, it is hard to recognize the worn part corresponding to vibration signal change because clearances of different details may cause change in vibration signal value under the same values of crankshaft rotation angle.
The problem concerned can be solved by the following: firstly, 'competent' choice of the number of points for vibration sensors installation; secondly, 'fortunate' location of the sensors on the unit; and thirdly, 'reliable' algorithm for the signal processing. The only criterion for solving of these problems is field experience of the analysis of reciprocating compressor malfunctions at the moment of their repair, and comparison of malfunctions with accumulated data.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Condition monitoring of reciprocating compressors // Consumers and manufacturers of compressors and compressor equipment: Proceedings of III International Symposium. - St. Petersburg, 1997. - p. 254-256