Development of methodology and technology for piston compressors health control, diagnostics and monitoring by means of vibration analysis, as well as algorithms of automatic systems for piston compressors monitoring which provide their fault-free operation, is an actual problem.
Data collection and processing is the basis of piston compressors monitoring and diagnostics technology, thus providing compressors defects and malfunctions detection with a specified depth of their detailing and reliability and a hazard level.
Realization of monitoring and diagnostics technology is based on application of vibration-acoustic signals structure models upon occurrence of various defects and malfunctions in piston compressors components, set of malfunctions and standard values diagnostic features, methods of vibration-acoustic signals transformation and a system for their parameters estimation.
The paper considers methodology of the diagnostic signal processing and the monitoring system functional diagram.
The proposed monitoring and diagnostics methodology is based on measurement of vibration-acoustic oscillations parameters and characteristics, as well as measurement of direct structural and thermodynamic parameters.
The structure and functioning principles of the expert system for decision-making support have been presented.
Functioning algorithm of the automatic expert system includes calculation of the diagnostic features values based on their normative ones, formation of the diagnostic features sets which correspond to individual malfunctions classes and formation of the expert system messages.
The scheme of the system for piston compressors real-time condition monitoring has been considered.
The system has a series-parallel structure of a data-measuring complex for data collection and processing, which allows to measure the vibration-acoustic signals parameters for piston compressors and their operating modes monitoring. Besides, the system allows to measure other physical processes parameters, for example, for monitoring and diagnosis-making purposes it has been provided to measure and apply pressure in decreasing spaces (an indicator diagram), gas temperature, a rod position, leakage through stuffing boxes and others.
GOST R 53563-2009. Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Monitoring the condition of the equipment hazardous. Order organization - DYNAMICS SPC, Russian Technical Expertise, Scientific-and-Industrial Union "RISCOM", NPO "RDC CD", – Introduced on 01/01/2011, Moscow, "Standardinform" - 2010 – 5 p.
Naumenko A.P., Vibration-acoustic model of piston compressor diagnostic signal // Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machinery systems: materials of VII International Scientific and Technical Conference, 10-12 November 2009, Omsk. Omsk Technical State University, 2009. Vol. 2. P. 39-44.
Naumenko A.P., Methodology of vibration-acoustic diagnostics of piston machinery // Bauman’s MSTU Reporter. Special edition. Mechanical engineering series. Moscow, Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman. 2007. p. 85-95.
Naumenko A.P., Models of piston compressor vibration-acoustic signals // Science, Education and Business: materials of regional scientific and practical conference devoted to Radio day. Omsk, KAN, 2010, p. 114-120.
Naumenko A.P., On some models of piston machinery vibration-acoustic signal structure // Dvigatel – 2010: International Scientific conference, devoted to the 180-Anniversary of Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman [edited by N.A.Ivashchenko, V. A. Wagner, L.V.Grekhov]: Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman, 2010. С. 75-79.
Kostyukov V.N., Synthesis of invariant diagnostic features and the units health models for diagnostic purposes (article), V.N. Kostyukov, Omsk Scientific Bulletin, 2000, №12, pp. 77-81.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Practice of piston machines vibration-acoustic diagnostics (article), V.N. Kostyukov, A.P. Naumenko, Collected works on engine building problems, devoted to the 175th Anniversary of Moscow State Technical University n.a. N.E. Bauman, Moscow, 2005, pp. 30-33.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Problems and solutions of piston compressors safe operation (article), V.N. Kostyukov, A.P. Naumenko, Compressor Techniques and Pneumatics, 2008, №3, pp. 21-28.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Solution for problems of piston compressors safe operation (article), V.N. Kostyukov, A.P. Naumenko, Assembling in Mechanical Engineering and Instrument-Making, 2009, №3, pp. 27-36.
Naumenko A.P., On vibrational diagnostic parameters’ choice// Science, Education and Business: materials of regional scientific and practical conference devoted to Radio day. Omsk, KAN, 2010, p 106-115.
GOST R 53565-2009. Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Monitoring the condition of the equipment hazardous. Vibration centrifugal pump and compressor units - DYNAMICS SPC, Russian Technical Expertise, Scientific-and-Industrial Union "RISCOM", NPO "RDC CD", - Introduced on 01/01/2011, Moscow, "Standardinform" – 2010 - 8 p.
Kostyukov V.N., Rationing of vibration parameters within piston compressors diagnostics (article), V.N. Kostyukov, Consumers – manufacturers of compressors and compressor equipment, 7th International Symposium, Proceedings, Saint-Petersburg, 2001, pp. 90-93.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Regulatory and methodological support of piston compressors health monitoring (article), V.N. Kostyukov, A.P. Naumenko, Testing. Diagnostics, 2005, №11, pp. 20-23.
Naumenko A.P., Modern methods and means of real-time piston machinery health monitoring / Compressor machinery and pneumatics. №8, 2010. p. 27-34.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Boychenko S.N.. Method of vibration diagnostics of machinery: pat. 2 314 508 Russian Federation. 2006135874/28; declared 10.10.2006; published 10.01.2008. Bulletin No. 1.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Boychenko S.N.. Method of vibration diagnostics of piston cars’ condition by spectral invariants: pat. 2 337 341 Russian Federation. No. 2007113529/28; declared 11.04.2007; published 27.10.2008. Bulletin No. 30.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Method of vibration diagnostics of objects: pat. 2 363 936 Russian Federation. 2008121486/28; declared 27.05.2008. published 10.08.2009. Bulletin No. 22.
GOST R 53564-2009. Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines. Monitoring the condition of the equipment hazardous. Requirements for monitoring - DYNAMICS SPC, Russian Technical Expertise, Scientific-and-Industrial Union "RISCOM", NPO "RDC CD", - Introduced on 01/01/2011, Moscow, "Standardinform" - 2010 – 20 p.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Automated control systems for safe money-saving operation of refineries and petrochemical plants equipment (ACS SMSPM - COMPACS®) (monograph), V.N. Kostyukov, S.N. Boychenko, Al.V. Kostyukov, Moscow, Mechanical Engineering, 1999, 163 p.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Health monitoring system for reciprocating machines (article), V.N. Kostyukov, A.P. Naumenko, Testing. Diagnostics, 2007, №3 (105), pp. 50-59.
Naumenko A.P., Real-time condition monitoring of reciprocating machines (full report text) // CM2009/MFPT2009 (The sixth international conference on condition monitoring and machinery failure prevention technologies): materials of a conference (June 23-25, 2009). Irish, Dublin, 2009. Pp. 1202-1213.
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Naumenko A.P. Diagnostics and Condition Monitoring of piston compressors // CM2010/MFPT2010 (The Seventh International Conference on Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies) (June 22-24, 2010): materials of a conference. England, Stratford-upon-Avon, 2010. Pp. 1-11. 1 CD-disk (CD-ROM).
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Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P. Technology of piston compressors real-time diagnostics and monitoring // Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies (СМ/MFPT 2014)
Analysis of accidents and machinery comprising rotating parts has revealed that a considerable amount of shutdowns is caused by the destruction of rolling bearings (40-50 %). To solve the problem of preventing sudden failures of the bearings one shall implement vibration monitoring of bearings condition during operation and switch from PPM to a condition-based maintenance and repair system.
Almost all existing methods of rolling bearing condition diagnostics deal with analysis of vibration-acoustic signals in time or frequency domains. But since operation of bearings within the machinery unit sometimes produces a lot of noise, there is a chance of a second-kind error occurrence.
That is why an increase of reliability of diagnostic results due to new method development is an urgent task. In that connection, a study of changes in characteristic function parameters of vibration-acoustic signals of bearings during condition measurement arouses a great interest.
Kostyukov V.N., Naumenko A.P., Kudryavtseva I.S. Diagnostics of rolling bearings by characteristic function parameters // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 142-145.
Solving the task of increasing transport volumes at suburbian railway lines and their quality in conditions of transportation safety provision with simultaneous reduction of operational costs requires automatic systems for rolling stock diagnostics in depot.
The technology of electric train condition assessment by means of the COMPACS®-EXPRESS-TR3 system described in the paper, which does not cancel the order existing in the Russian Railways regulating the PPM and repair process, allows significantely speed-up and simplify train maintnance in depot in case when large amounts of machines require maintnance. It is possible by the timely accurate and high-quality codition monitoring of the main sub-systems of electric trains in depot.
Such decision also alows to reduce non-productive downtime of train units waiting for train to be assembled, adjusted and run-in; obtain almost full elimination of defects and operational failures due to maintnance staff‘s incompetence, i.e. reduce equipment‘s damagebility by at least 50-60%, providing high level of safety and uninterrupted operation of suburbian railway lines.
Kostyukov Al.V., Kazarin D.V., Serov A.A. The technology for comprehensive condition assessment of depot trains // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 139-142
Condition monitoring systems for machinery comprise dozens or even hundreds of vibration and temperature sensors. Designing multi-purpose sensors measuring various parameters is an urgent task in instrument making industry.
Nowadays, due to high reliability and temperature tolerance sensors made of piezoceramic materials become widely spread. The piezoceramic sensors are intended to measure force, pressure, acceleration, humidity, temperature and flowrate. But, for example, force sensors use direct piezo-effect comprising change of charge value at the opposite surfaces of a crystal caused by tensile or compressive forces.
Temperature measurement by means of piezo-crystal, as a rule, is based on anisotropy – by selecting a particular piezo-element slice orientation in relation to crystallographic axis one can change its thermal frequency response (TFR) which, generally, is a non-linear temperature function.
The paper is devoted to development of a method for temperature evaluation by means of piezoceramic vibration transducer. The paper reveals the results of development and testing of vibration/temperature piezo-sensor. Temperature measurement error within the whole vibration measurement range does not exceed ±1ºС in case when the air temperature range varies from –40ºС to +100ºС.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Boyarnikov A.V. Multifunctional sensors made of piezoceramic materials // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 135-138.
Centrifugal pump operation in cavitation mode may cause fast destruction of running wheel, pipe lines, and additional vibration loads at machine’s structure. In that connection, automatic diagnostics of cavitation mode is vital for safety of its operation.
Today, the main method of centrifugal pump condition evaluation, including its condition in cavitation mode, is the vibration-acoustic method, comprising the analysis of vibration signal on the surface of the machinery unit. As the result of the signal analysis, a special expert system creates a set of diagnostic features by which using rules of basic logic a diagnostic expert message is issued.
The paper dwells upon centrifugal pump cavitation diagnostics using one of modern methods of non-linear dynamics - the fractal theory, which uses Hurst index, correlating with vibration signal dimensions as a diagnostic feature. The main advantage of the feature is independence from the level of analyzed signal, and, consequently, from size and power of the machinery unit.
Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N. Hurst index in real-time diagnostics and monitoring of centrifugal pump operation in cavitation mode // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 132-135.
Safe resource-saving operation of machinery in production and transport industries is an urgent task.
Machinery condition monitoring ensures observability and utilization of the Technology for safe resource-saving operation and maintenance.
The paper considers the experience in condition monitoring systems operation in power and railway transport industries.
Kostyukov V.N. Vibration monitoring of production and transport facilities // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 129-132.
All major factors causing high operational costs and losses due to accidents reveal themselves in machinery operation life. Total loss directly depends on timely detection of failures and efficiency of personnel’s actions at various speeds of operation life loss due to wearing out elements of the machine.
The paper briefly describes the mechanism of machinery failure risk monitoring in real time, the development and improvement of which is the main task the DYNAMICS SPC has been performing for 20 years now. The development uses the data from the COMPACS® system for accidents prevention and machinery condition monitoring created by the DYNAMICS SPC. The non-destructive testing systems are implemented at dozens of enterprises operating hundreds of hazardous production facilities in Russia and abroad and control over 20 000 machinery units of 1700 types.
Kostyukov V.N., Kostyukov Al.V., Kostyukov A.V. Real-time monitoring of machinery operation risks // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 126-129.
Bringing together more than 20-year experience in monitoring and diagnostics of important machinery equipment of refinery, petrochemical, metallurgy, mining industries, as well as an experience in railway transport diagnostics, DYNAMICS SPC actively develops an innovative technology of rolling stock condition control on the basis of real-time monitoring – an automated system for safe resource-saving operation and maintenance of machinery – COMPACS®.
Creation and development of the COMPACS® system are aimed at increasing safety and achieving uninterrupted functioning of railway transport by means of efficient control over the condition of rolling stock and infrastructural objects by means of continuous real-time monitoring.
The paper reveals the results of developing an automated control system for safe resource-saving operation and maintenance of rolling stock equipment of a suburban railway passenger train. It features the information on key elements of the COMPACS® system and the tasks it solves.
Kostyukov V.N., Kazarin D.V., Schelkanov A.V. An automated system of safe resource-saving operation and maintenance of rolling stock equipment of a suburban railway passenger train // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 122-125
In the process of railway rolling stock operation the most crucial units, subjected to sudden failures, are critical for the whole rolling stock. These primarily include electrical and mechanical units, where troubleshooting within operational process is rather difficult.
The most effective methods of defects detection in rotary mechanical equipment are thermal and vibroacoustic ones, however the thermal method allows only to establish the fact of the unit destruction, or detect defects at a late stage of their development, while the vibroacoustic method of non-destructive testing allows to detect both incipient and developed defects.
A large number of noise components, accompanied with interaction between a wheel and a track, has lead to a conclusion that an objective vibroacoustic health monitoring within operational process of the rolling stock rotary mechanical parts is rather difficult and sometimes is even impossible.
Meanwhile, to achieve a dynamic error equal to 1% (an acceptable level for critical equipment is 0.1%) it is necessary to carry out diagnostics at intervals of not more than 2 hours, which can realized only through implementation and application of on-board health monitoring systems.
The research purpose is to determine the most informative, from vibration analysis point of view, frequency range of a vibration signal for an expert system development and the railway rolling stock condition monitoring.
Primary analysis of data has proved that vibration parameters level on a traction motor differs significantly from vibration parameters levels on other electric motors, installed on the same car. This fact has allowed to presume the traction motor malfunction.
The analysis has shown that the vibration parameters level in different frequency bands is substantially influenced by the rolling stock running speed and operating modes. It has been also established that units with different state of health are influenced in a different manner.
Discrete components of vibration acceleration envelope spectrum, corresponding to frequencies of these or those defects occurrence, are revealed in different speed modes that should be used in the expert system development.
As a result, characteristics of vibration parameters distribution in the rolling stock units within an electric multiple unit train motion in different frequency bands and speed modes have been determined, as well as impacts effect generated from variable speed and dynamic operating modes.
The research results are intended for application within development of the expert system, implemented in on-board systems for the rolling stock units condition monitoring.
Kostyukov Al.V., Tsurpal A.E., Basakin V.V. Research of vibration in railway rolling stock mechanical parts // Condition Monitoring and Machinery Failure Prevention Technologies (СМ/MFPT 2014)
The carried out studies, as well as technical analysis of defects, malfunctions and unscheduled repair of electric trains revealed that in the system of the train’s auxiliary DC circuits that most liable to failures element is an electric auxiliary converter.
The paper describes a technology of diagnosing an electric train’s DC converter using three-phase alternating current spectrum parameters.
The examples of a three-phase alternating current spectrum of a faultless converter, and a converter in a pre-accident condition are given.
Kazarin D.V., Tsurpal A.E., Ilyushin M.S. Diagnostics of electric auxiliary converter of a direct current electric train using parameters of three-phase alternating current spectrum // Dinamika sistem, mehanizmov i mashin (Dynamics of systems, mechanisms and machines). - Omsk: OmSTU, 2014. - Iss. 4. - p. 119-121